**STATISTICS**

Statistics is a mathematical science that deals with storing, analyzing, interpreting/explicating and presenting data. Statistics is a mathematical science that deals with data storage, analysis, interpretation/explication and presentation. Apart from being applied in almost every academic discipline, ranging from natural to social sciences, statistics is also used in business management and by the authorities in order to make decisions.

“Statistics” is the plural from of the word “statistic”, which corresponds to the workforce statistics, accident statistics, demographic statistics etc. that are acquired by the application of a statistical method to a data group.

**History of Statistics**

By the emergence of organized human communities, the desire to acquire mathematical data about the materialistic conditions of life in these communities has appeared. This need could be traced in Ancient Egypt, Ancient China and Ancient Greece. It is followed by the regular census in Ancient Rome; the studies concerning the population prepared thanks to Charlemagne’s order, Doomsday Book of William the Conqueror and were followed by the numberless collections prepared by the order of kings.

In XVII century, concepts related to the bases and tools of statistical studies were established. Two schools appeared: The German School, which allegedly coined the word “statistic” and it is called “the descriptive school” that was founded by Herman Conrig (1606-1681). John Gaunt (1719-1772) and William Petty are considered to be the founders of the second school called “the Political Arithmeticians”. This second school has gone beyond the descriptive school by showing some statistical constants, such as the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls. In the coming years, Edmond Halley (1656-1742) put forth the table of life, which formed the basis of his studies on the modern form of life insurance. Then, studies on the birth rate of baby boys and the developments on the rate of male children until the age of 20 were conducted by Johann Peter Süssmilch (1707-1767).

At the beginning of XIX century, Pierre Simon (1749-1827) in his book “Theorie Analytique des Probabilities” [1852], put forth the uses of this theory concerning all the reasons one by one that could be used for solving the sophisticated natural events. Quetelet (1796-1874) developed the application of the method from anthropometrical, psychological and social analyses standpoint. As the result of his attempts, first international statistics congress, which is considered the pioneer of Statistics Institute, was held in Brussels in 1853.

Karl Pearson founded the science of biostatistics (a.k.a biometry) which mostly dealt with the field of therapeutic experience. The relationship between statistical observation and economics led to birth of econometrics. Maxwell constituted the starting point of mechanical statistics.

Related to human behaviours, C. Edward Spearman's research in accordance with the behaviours of individuals, later improved in human and animal applied psychology, brings about the resolution of factor analysis methods that are the logical prominance of researches.

Statistical methods appeared as an auxiliary subject to business methods: market investigation, budget control stock management. With its extensions such as Game Theory and Decision Theory, it gave rise to the methods of operational research.

A statistical work has various stages. The first stage, which is methodological, is to define the statistical unit to be worked on with its characteristics and designation list. In the second phase, which is technical, data is collected via sample survey, measurement and questioning. In the third stage (descriptive statistics), statistical knowledge is presented as a table curve or a diagram containing all the information.

In classical statistics, (statistical induction), observations are studied to be adapted to a statistical distribution (binominal or normal) or to a model with these calculated parameters. Lastly, if various characteristics are defined together, research may be conducted as to whether there are relations among them or not: functional relation, full independence or stochastic relation.

**The aim and sections of Statistics**

Studies such as data collection, analyzing and interpreting the data collected that are carried out for the purpose of research.

The domain is divided into two sections as mathematical statistics and applied statistics. Mathematical statistics primarily deals with theories. Applied statistics, on the other hand, acknowledges current problems and carries out researches using scientific methods.

**Areas of Employment**

The graduates are awarded the “Bachelor’s Degree” and assume the title of “Statistician”. They can be employed at TurkSat (Turkish Statistical Institute), SPO (State Planning Organization), survey corporations, Banking and Insurance Sector, ISE (Istanbul Stock Exchange) and planning departments of various organizations.